Draft Seniority List of all the Ayush physicians working under Ministry of Ayush and CGHS as on 01.01.2023 (895 KB)
Introduction to Ayush Systems of Medicine
Ayush systems of medicine include Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy. Ayush is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa and Homoeopathy. Ayurveda is the oldest system with a documented history of its practice for more than 5000 years whereas Homoeopathy is in practice in India for around 100 years. These systems are being practised in the country with diverse preferences of people and infrastructural facilities. Ayurveda is practised widely in the States of Kerala, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Goa and Odisha. The practice of Unani System is prevalent mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Rajasthan. Homoeopathy is practised widely in Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Gujarat and the North-eastern States. The Siddha system is most popular in the southern states of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry and Kerala. Sowa Rigpa system of medicine is prevalent in Himalayan regions including Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim. Besides, there are a few educational institutes of Sowa Rigpa in Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka also.
Ayurveda, the science of life is one of the ancient and comprehensive systems of health care. Quest for good health and long life is probably as old as human existence. According to Indian philosophy, health is prerequisite to pursue materialistic, social and spiritual upliftment of human being. It is believed that Lord Brahma the creator of the universe was also the first preacher of Ayurveda. Four Vedas considered as oldest Indian literatures composed between 5000 and 1000 BC have information on treatment by plants and natural procedures. Reference of medicine and surgery are also found in Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. However, Ayurveda was established as a fully grown medical system from the period of Samhita (compendium) i.e., around 1000 BC. The compendia like Caraka Samhita and Susruta Samhita were written in a systematic manner with eight specialties during this period. In these treatises, the basic tenets and therapeutic techniques of Ayurveda got very much organized and enunciated. These treatises stressed the importance of maintenance of health and also expanded their vision to pharmaco-therapeutics. The therapeutic properties of plants, animal products and minerals were extensively described in these compendia, which has made Ayurveda a comprehensive system of health care.
There were two main schools of thoughts in Ayurveda: Punarvasu Atreya - the school of physicians and Divodasa Dhanvantari- the school of surgeons. Punarvasu Atreya is mentioned as a pioneer in medicine, and Divodasa Dhanvantari in surgery. Disciples belonging to each school immensely contributed to development of the traditions of their own school. Six pupils of Atreya are believed to have composed their own compendia based on their Guru's teachings, but only two namely Bhela Samhita in its original form and Agnivesa tantra redacted by Caraka and Dridhabala are available today. Considered to be the most ancient and authoritative writing on Ayurveda available today, Caraka Samhita explains the logic and philosophy on which this system of medicine is based. Dhanvantari had six disciples and Susruta Samhita, a treatise primarily focusing on surgery was codified by Susruta based on teachings of Dhanvantari.
The essential details of Caraka Samhita and Susruta Samhita were compiled and further updated in the treatises Astanga Sahgraha and Astanga Hrdaya authored by Vrddha Vagbhata and Vagbhata during 6 - 7 Century AD. Thus, the main three treatises called Brhattrayi i.e., Caraka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and Astanga Sangraha formed basis for subsequent scholars to write texts and among them three concise classics i.e., Madhava Nidana, Sarngadhara Samhita and Bhava Prakasa having distinct features are called as Laghutrayi. Some other eminent practitioners and visionaries like Kasyapa, Bhela, and Harita also wrote their respective compendia.
An analysis of Ayurvedic treatises signifies that the different aspects of Ayurveda were evolved and documented from time to time in the form of texts or compendia. For instance, the Caraka Samhita an authentic source of internal medicine emphasizes on philosophy of life and line of treatment for different diseases. Susruta Samhita added a complete systematic approach to surgery and diseases of eyes, ear, throat, nose, head and dentistry. Madhava Nidana, authored by Madhavakara is a work on diagnosis of the diseases. Bhava Prakasa written by Bhava Misra gives additional emphasis on medicinal plants and Diet. Sarngadhara Samhita focused on pharmaceutics and Ayurveda was enriched with addition of more formulations and dosage forms. Subsequently, texts of Ayurveda were commented upon, updated, and methodically written by many authors from time to time. A look into commentaries on the treatises by the scholars indicates that while the theoretical framework of Ayurveda remained the same, the knowledge about drugs and techniques of therapy got expanded. The old concepts and descriptions were reviewed and updated in the light of contemporary understanding by the commentators in their commentaries thus reviving Ayurveda into an applied form. Present form of Ayurveda is the outcome of continued scientific inputs that has gone into the evolution of its principles, theories, and practices.
During Buddhist period Jivaka, a famous surgeon who treated Gautam Buddha studied Ayurveda at Takshashila University. Around 200 BC, medical students from different parts of the world used to come to the ancient University of Takshashila to learn Ayurveda. All the specialties of Ayurveda were developed, and full-fledged surgery was practiced. From 200 to 700 AD, University of Nalanda also attracted foreign medical students mainly from Japan, China etc. Evidence show that Ayurveda had nurtured many medical systems of the world. The Egyptians learnt about Ayurveda long before the invasion of Alexander in 400 BC through their sea-trade with India. Greeks and Romans came to know about it after their invasion. In the early part of the first millennium Ayurveda spread to the East through Buddhism and greatly influenced the Tibetan and Chinese system of medicine and herbology.
Around 800 A.D., Nagarjuna has conducted extensive studies on medicinal applications of mercury and other metals. These studies have entailed in the emergence of a new branch of Ayurveda viz. Rasa Sastra. Rigorous procedures were developed to purify, detoxify, and process formulations with metallic ingredients by using plant and animal materials. Classical treatises named Rasaratnasamuccaya, Rasarnava, Rasa Hrdaya Tantra elaborating the manufacture of mineral and metallic drugs and their use in therapeutics were written during this period. Ayurveda, in later periods used Mercury as well as other metals as important components of pharmaceutical formulations. Many exotic and indigenous drugs for new uses are found place in Ayurvedic literature. After 16 Century, there have been inclusions of diagnosis and treatment of new diseases based on modem medical science.
In 1827, the first Ayurveda course was started in India in the Government Sanskrit College, Calcutta. By the beginning of 20th Century, many Ayurveda colleges were established in India under the patr.onage of provincial Rulers. Ayurveda gained more ground beginning from the 1970, as a gradual recognition of the value of Ayurveda revived. Lots of academic work was done during 20th century and many books were written and seminars and symposia were held.
Presently Ayurveda has well-regulated undergraduate, post graduate and doctorate education in India. Commendable network of practitioners and manufactures exists. Infrastructure development in private and public sectors has improved the outreach to the community in a commendable way.
Astanga Ayurveda (Eight Branches of Ayurveda): - Ayurveda was divided into eight major clinical specialties.
- Kayacikitsa (internal medicine) - This branch deals with general ailments of adults not treated by other branches of Ayurveda.
- Salya Tantra (surgery) - This branch deals with various surgical operations using different surgical instruments and devices. Medical treatment of surgical diseases is also mentioned.
- Salakya (disease of supra-clavicular origin) - This branch deals with dentistry, diseases of ear, nose, throat, oral cavity, head and their treatment by using special techniques.
- Kaumarabhrtya (paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology) - This branch deals with childcare as well as the care of the woman before, during and after pregnancy. It also elaborates various diseases of women and children and their management.
- Bhootavidya (psychiatry) - This is study of mental diseases and their treatment. Treatment methods include medicines, diet regulation, psycho-behavioral therapy, and spiritual therapy.
- AgadaTantra (toxicology) - This branch deals with the treatment of toxins from vegetables, minerals and animal origin along with development of their antidotes. The pollution of air, water, habitats and seasons has been given special consideration in understanding epidemics and pandemics.
- Rasayana Tantra (rejuvenation and geriatrics) - - This branch which is unique to Ayurveda, deals with prevention of diseases and promotion of a long and healthy life.
- Vajikarana (Aphrodisiology and eugenics) - - This branch deals with the means of enhancing sexual vitality and efficiency for producing healthy and ideal progeny.
Strengths of Ayurveda:
Comprehensive definition of health: - Ayurveda defines health as a state of equilibrium of Dosa (regulatory and functional entities of the body), Dhatu (structural entities), Mala (excretory entities) and Agni (digestive and metabolic factors) along with healthy state of sensory and motor organs and mind with their harmonious relationship with the soul. As against definition of health, the diseased state is defined in Ayurveda as a loss of equilibrium of essential body constituents. The objective of disease management is to bring back the equilibrium, principally through lifestyle management rather than through curative therapies. The strength of Ayurveda lies in its three-fold holistic approach of prevention of disease, promotion of health and cure of disease. This is achieved through care of body, mind and soul where physical, mental and spiritual aspects of health are considered.
Acceptance by the community: - About 80-90% of population in India is reported to use Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine to meet their primary health care needs. Safety of this system is attributed to time-tested use substantiated by scientific evidence. Besides, synergy of ingredients in conjunction with individual need-based treatment plan forms the basis of efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic formulations. Specific guidelines are prescribed for the use of apparently toxic medicinal plants with certain detoxification processing that also enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of the final product.
Emphasis on promotion of health and prevention of diseases: -
Considering health of an
individual as dynamic integration of environment, body, mind and soul, Ayurveda lays
great emphasis on preservation and promotion of health and preventing the occurrence
of diseases. The treatment modalities of Ayurveda are based on the inherent ability of the
living body to rejuvenate, regenerate and restore the natural equilibrium. While treating
the patient, Ayurvedic treatment helps to enhance the natural healing process in the
The prevention of disease and promotion of health is achieved by judicious practice of Dinacarya (daily regimen), Ritucarya (seasonal regimen) and Sadvritta (ethical code of conduct) in accordance with Prakrti (psychosomatic constitution). In this way significance of healthy lifestyle for maintenance of health is emphasized by Ayurveda. Do's and don'ts on personal and social behavior are elaborated for attaining total health. Great emphasis is given on Nidana Parivaijana i.e., keeping away from factors which cause or precipitate the disease, whereas therapeutic procedures like Panchkarma help in eradicating the disease.
Importance of diet and lifestyle: - The ultimate aim of this medical science is preservation of health, and it can be attained in two ways, i.e., observation of lifestyle recommendations to prevent the diseases and eradication of already afflicted diseases. The prerequisites to attain the prevention include wholesome diet, conservation of environment, congenial social and cultural atmosphere. Diet is an essential factor for the maintenance of health. Ayurveda emphasizes on diversified aspects of dietetics and nutrition viz. quality, quantity, processing methods, rationale of combination of food articles, emotional aspects, nature of the consumer, geographical and environmental conditions etc. Advocacy of proper diet and lifestyle, which is congenial to the individual maintains normal body functions thus prevents the diseases.
Holistic concept of health: - Ayurveda considers a living being as a combination of body, mind and soul. All health management approaches are intended to maintain the harmony and homeostasis of these entities.
Individualized approach: - Ayurveda considers that everyone has distinct psychosomatic constitution and health status. This is considered while advocating preventive, promotive and curative measures.
Universal approach: - According to Ayurveda, the individual (microcosm) is a miniature replica of the universe (macrocosm). Every aspect of the universe is represented in the individual. Any change in the environment affects human being. Therefore, emphasis is laid on social and environmental factors which are interlinked with health.
Stress on public health and eugenics: - The activities of the individual through his thought, word and deed have their good or bad effects on the environment. Ayurveda emphasizes upon healthy body, sound mind, benevolent speech and spiritual practices to create a healthy and happy environment. The pivotal role of eugenics mentioned in Ayurveda is to produce strong, healthy and ideal progeny.
Use of natural products: - Ayurvedic products are derived mainly from plants and other natural resources. Supportive leads are emerging from revalidation of Ayurvedic drugs. Identification of active principles of some plants has led to discovery of many allopathic drugs. Some pharmacologically proven constituents of the Ayurvedic plants like Aloe vera, Curcuma longa, withania somnifera, Bacopa monnieri etc. are used globally.
Areas of clinical strength: - Ayurveda provides healthcare within the physical and financial reach of rural India. Some of the Ayurvedic medicinal plants and spices are widely used as home remedies in India for a wide range of common ailments. The common users of Ayurveda are individuals suffering from chronic intractable diseases. Ayurvedic treatment is effective in chronic disorders like sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity; psychosomatic disorders like depression, insomnia; digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel diseases; respiratory disorders like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Musculo-skeletal disorders like arthritis, osteoporosis; neurological and neuro-degenerative disorders like paralytic conditions, sciatica, dementia, Parkinson's disease etc.
Unique therapeutic approach: - Ayurveda advocates certain bio-cleansing and rejuvenating therapeutic measures such as Pahcakarma, Rasayana for maintenance of healthy state as well as in the management of chronic diseases. Ksarasutra, a minimal invasive para-surgical procedure using medicated thread, widely cited in ancient medical literatures for its safety and efficacy is being successfully practiced as promising therapy for ano-rectal disorders. Such unique specialties of Ayurveda either as stand-alone or add on therapies are proven to have an edge over conventional medical approach in disease management and improving quality of life.
The way forward: - Ayurveda can contribute to the management of chronic and refractory disease conditions sharing huge global burden such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions.
The word “Yoga” comes from the Sanskrit word “yuj” which means “to unite or integrate”.
Yoga is about the union of a person’s own consciousness and the universal consciousness.
It is primarily a way of life, first propounded by Maharishi Patanjali in systematic form
Yogsutra. The discipline of Yoga consists of eight components namely, restraint (Yama),
Observance of austerity (Niyama), physical postures (Asana), breathing control (Pranayam),
restraining of sense organs (Pratyahar), contemplation (Dharna), meditation (Dhyan) and
Deep meditation (Samadhi). These steps in the practice of Yoga have the potential to
elevate social and personal behaviour and to promote physical health by better circulation
of oxygenated blood in the body, restraining the sense organs and there by inducing
tranquillity and serenity of mind and spirit. The practice of Yoga has also been found to the
useful in the prevention of certain psychosomatic diseases and improves individual
resistance and ability to endure stressful situations. Yoga is a promotive, preventive
rehabilitative and curative intervention for overall enhancement of health status. A number
of postures are described in Yoga literature to improve health, to prevent diseases and to
cure illness. The physical postures are required to be chosen judiciously and have to be
practiced in the correct way so that the benefits of prevention of disease, promotion of
health and therapeutic use can be derived from them.
The United Nations General Assembly had declared June 21st as the International Yoga Day on 11th December, 2014. Every year the Prime Minister of India, leads the nation in celebration of IDY.
Universal approach: - Naturopathy is rooted in the healing wisdom of many cultures and times based on the principle of natural healing. The principles and practices of Naturopathy are integrated in the life style of the people with emphasis on living close to nature.
Naturopathy is a cost effective non-pharmacological therapies involving the use of natural
materials for health care and healthy living. It is based on the theories of vitality, boosting
the self-healing capacity of the body and the principles of healthy living. Naturopathy is a
system of natural treatment and also a way of life widely practiced, globally accepted and
recognized for health preservation and management of illnesses. Naturopathy advocates
living in harmony with constructive principles of nature on the physical, mental, social and
spiritual planes. It has great promotive, preventive, curative as well as restorative potentials.
Naturopathy promotes healing by stimulating the body’s inherent power to regain health with the help of five elements of nature – Earth, water, air, fire and Ether. It is a call to “Return to Nature” and to resort to a simple way of living in harmony with the self, society and environment. Naturopathy advocates ‘Better Health with usage of Natural therapeutics, fasting, diet, yoga and physical culture. It is reported to be effective in chronic, allergic, autoimmune, degenerative and stress related disorders. The theory and practice of Naturopathy are based on a holistic view point with particular attention to simple eating and living habits, adoption of purification measures, use of hydrotherapy, cold packs, mud packs, baths, massages, fasting etc.
The goals of Naturopathy are not merely curing disease or symptom reduction, but enhancing patients' positive physical psychosocial characteristics as a way to reach and improve well-being when faced with disease (be it somatic or mental); this is complementary to the positive mental health paradigm. These goals implicate the shift from a solely disease-centered approach to a person-centered, strengths-based therapeutic relationship.
In Naturopathy, health is equated with the individual’s capacity on restoration of the body’s inner balance or vitality, the life force present which is responsible for all activities in the body. Reduced vitality is considered to be the cause of all diseases in human body. All the naturopathic therapeutic modalities are directed towards regaining this vital capacity fight against diseases. Vitality is affected by violating nature’s law known as “natural hygiene” which includes sleep, good food, right exercise, prayer and fasting. Therefore, Naturopathy treatments are close to nature with the use natural elements which can enhance vitality. Thus, to optimize or economize vitality, to conserve it is the foci in natural therapeutics.
Naturopathy blends centuries-old knowledge of natural therapies with current advances in the understanding of health and human systems. Naturopathy, therefore, can be described as the general practice of natural health therapies. In promoting health paradigm, the approach of naturopathy focuses more on strengthening wellness through various treatment natural modalities – fasting, mudtherapy, hydrotherapy, acupuncture, massage therapy, dietary supplements, nutrition, herbal medicine, physical manipulation, colonic irrigation, magnetotherapy, chromotherapy, ozone therapy and so on. Hence, it aids the human system to remove the cause of disease i.e. toxins by eliminating unwanted and unused matters from the human body for curing diseases.
The Unani System of Medicine pioneered in Greece and was developed by Arabs into an
elaborate medical science based on the framework of the teaching of Buqrat (Hippocrates)
and Jalinoos (Galen). Since that time Unani Medicine has been known as Greco-Arab
Medicine. The three fundamentals of Hippocratic Medicine were observation, experience
and rational principles, which still hold valid in the field of Medicine and Science. This
system is based on Hippocratic theory of four humours viz. blood, phlegm, yellow bile and
black bile, and the four qualities of states of living human body like hot, cold, moist and
dry. They are represented as earth, water, fire and air, the Greek ideas were put by Arabian
physician as seven principles (Umoor-e-Tabbiya) and included, element (Arkan),
temperament (Mizaj), humours (Akhlat), organs (Aaza), sprit (Arwah), faculties (Quwa) and
functions (Afaal). In this system, it is believed that, these principles are responsible for the
body constitution and its health, as well as diseased conditions. The World Health
Organization (WHO) has recognized the Unani System of Medicine (USM) as an
alternative system to cater the health care needs of human population. Alternative medicine
is being practiced worldwide. Unani is one of the most well-known traditional medicine
systems and draws on the ancient traditional systems of medicine of China, Egypt, India,
Iraq, Persia and Syria. It is also called Arab medicine.
Unani is still popular in many Arab and East Asian countries. In fact, Unani medicine and herbal products are gradually more being used in many countries where modern medicine is easily available. India has accepted it as one of the alternative health care systems and has given it official status. Practices of traditional medicine vary greatly with country and region, as they are influenced by factors such as culture, history, personal attitudes and philosophy. In many cases, the theory and application of traditional medicine are quite different from those of conventional medicine. Based on the therapies, traditional medicine can be categorized as medication and non-medication. Traditional medication involves the use of herbal medicines, animal parts and minerals. Non medication involves various techniques, primarily without the use of medication. They include, for example, acupuncture and related techniques, chiropractice, osteopathy, manual therapies, qigong, yoga, and other physical, mental, regimental, spiritual and mind-body therapies.
Unani Medicine recognizes the influence of surroundings and ecological conditions on the state of health of human beings. Apart from treating disease conditions, Unani Medicine lays great emphasis on the prevention of disease and promotion of health. In a completely healthy person Unani prescribes lifestyle, diet and environment appropriate for his or her temperament, while for those who have become vulnerable to disease, special diets, nondrug manipulations or regimens and even drugs are prescribed to maintain health and prevent disease.
The modern form of Unani medicine that we see today is a result of a long period of evolution which occurred through exchange of knowledge between diverse countries, regions and communities. The system is still increasing its dimensions and scope by incorporating the contemporary scientific knowledge and the newest of technologies. There is growing awareness among the scientific community and the general public about the intrinsic value of our traditional systems of medicine, and as a result Unani system of medicine have entered the mainstream to compliment conventional medicine.
Siddha is one of the ancient comprehensive medical systems in India. The Healing
Dimension revealed by the Siddhars with highly systematized technology is 'Siddha
medicine'. The evolution of Siddha system is believed to date back 10000 – 4000 BC. The
Siddha system provides preventive, promotive, curative, rejuvenative and rehabilitative
health care with holistic approach.
The word ‘Siddha’ is derived from the root word ‘Citti’, which means attaining perfection, heavenly bliss and accomplishment in life arts such as philosophy, yoga, wisdom, alchemy, medicine and above all the art of longevity. The Siddha system comprises essentially of philosophical concepts including the four main components: 1. Iatro-chemistry, 2. Medical practice, 3. Yogic practice and 4. Wisdom. Siddha system is named after the founders called ‘Siddhars’ who explored and explained the reality of nature and its relationship to man by their yogic awareness and experimental findings. Siddhar Agasthiyar is called the Father of Siddha Medicine.
The Siddha diagnostic methodology is based on the clinical examination by the physician and these diagnostic tools are very important because they assist in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Siddha physicians base their diagnosis on three Humors (Mukkuttram) and eight vital tests (Ennvagai Thervu). The treatment in Siddha system is aimed at keeping the three vital life factors in equilibrium and in the maintenance of the seven body Thathus. Special therapies/external therapy techniques such as Pressure Manipulation Therapy (Varmam), Physical Manipulation Therapy (Thokkanam), Bone setting (Otivu Murivu Maruthuvam), Siddhar Yogam are strengths of Siddha system.
“Sowa-Rigpa” commonly known as Amchi’s medicine, is the traditional medicine of many
parts of the Himalayan regions. Sowa-Rigpa means Science of healing in Bodhi language. It
is originated from the Bhagwan Buddha in India before 2500 years and plays vital role in
public health in many Asian Countries. In India, Sowa-Rigpa is the traditional medicine in
Himalayan regions of Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Darjeeling
and Tibetan settlements of India. Considering the importance of Sowa-Rigpa and its active
role in public health especially in Himalayan regions, Govt. of India has recognized the
Sowa-Rigpa system of medicine by amendment to The Indian Medicine Central Council
Act. 1970 in September 2010.
Being originated from India, Sowa-Rigpa has large number of medical texts translated from India followed by a huge literature written by Tibetan scholars. As per the preliminary study conducted by National Research Institute for Sowa-Rigpa, Leh; there are 22 different Ayurvedic work in Buddhist cannon Stan-Gyur, written by well-known Indian scholars like Nagarjuna, Vagbhat, Chandrananda, Bha-Lipa etc. These are some of very important works of Ayurveda which were then popular in India. Most of these texts were translated during 8th–17th century AD by both Indian and Tibetan scholars. Non-canonical work like the fundamental text Gyud-bZi is believed to have had its source in Sanskrit too and believed to be scribed by Bhagwan Buddha. In the category of non-canonical works, there is a long list of medicinal text authored by different Indian and Tibetan scholars; many of these texts are available in form of gSung-bHum collection and Terma section. The number goes beyond two thousand. Most of these texts can be found in monasteries, Libraries, Amchi’s (Sowa-Rigpa practitioners).
The Indian System of Medicine is of great lineage. It is the culmination of Indian thoughts of medicine which represents a way of healthy living valued with a long and unique cultural history and epitomizes the Vedic guidance ‘Let noble thoughts come to us from every side; thus, one can see an amalgamation of the of the best of influences that came in from the contact of different sources of knowledge.
The physicians from the time of Hippocrates (around 400 B.C) have observed that certain
substances could produce symptoms of disease in healthy people like those of people
suffering from the disease. Dr. Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, a German
physician scientifically examined this phenomenon and codified the fundamental principles
of Homoeopathy. Homoeopathy was brought into India around 1810 A.D by European
missionaries and received official recognition by a Resolution passed by the Constituent
Assembly in 1948 and then by the Parliament.
The first principle of Homoeopathy ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’, says that a medicine which could induce a set of symptoms in healthy human beings would be capable of curing a similar set of symptoms in human beings suffering from the disease. The second principle of ‘Single Medicine’ says that one medicine should be administered at a time to a particular patient during the treatment. The third principle of ‘Minimum Dose’ stated that the bare minimum dose of a drug which would induce a curative action without any adverse effect should be administered. Homoeopathy is based on the theory that the causation of a disease mainly depends upon the susceptibility or proneness of an individual to the incidence of the disease in addition to the action of external agents like bacteria, viruses etc.
Homoeopathy is a method of treating diseases by administering drugs which have been experimentally proved to possess the power to produce similar symptoms on healthy human beings. Treatment in Homoeopathy, which is holistic in nature, focuses on an individual’s response to a specific environment. Homoeopathic medicines are prepared mainly from natural substances, such as plant products, minerals and from animal sources, nososdes, sarcodes etc. Homoeopathic medicines do not have any toxic, poisonous, or side effects. Homoeopathic treatment is economical as well and has a very broad public acceptance.
Homoeopathy has its own areas of strength in therapeutics, and it is particularly useful in treatment for allergies, autoimmune disorders and viral infections. Many surgical, gynaecological & obstetrical and paediatric conditions and ailments affecting the eyes, nose, ear, teeth, skin, sexual organs etc. are amenable to Homoeopathic treatment. Behavioural disorder, Neurological problems and Metabolic diseases can also be successfully treated by Homoeopathy. Apart from the curative aspects, Homoeopathic medicines are also used in preventive and promotive healthcare. In recent times, there is an emergence of interest in the use of Homoeopathic medicines in veterinary care, agriculture, dentistry etc. Homoeopathic medical education has developed in seven specialties in post-graduate teaching, which are Materia Medica, Organon of Medicine, Repertory, Practice of Medicine, Paediatric, Pharmacy and Psychiatry.
To ensure transparency and to improve the quality and functioning of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Sowa-Rigpa & Homoeopathy (ASUSR&H) Colleges across the country, the National Commission for Indian System of Medicine Act, 2020 and the National Commission for Homoeopathy Act, 2020 were notified and published on 21stSeptember 2020 in the Official Gazette of India.
These Acts were enacted to ensure a medical education system that improves access to quality and affordable medical education, ensures availability of adequate and high-quality medical professionals of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy in all parts of the country. These Acts helps to promote equitable and universal healthcare that encourages community health perspective and makes services of such medical professionals accessible and affordable to all the citizens; that promotes national health goals; that encourages such medical professionals to adopt latest medical research in their work and to contribute to research; that has an objective periodic and transparent assessment of medical institutions and facilitates maintenance of a medical register of Indian System of Medicine for India and enforces high ethical standards in all aspects of medical services; that is flexible to adapt to the changing needs and has an effective grievance redressal mechanism and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
On 11.06.2021, the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 was repealed and the Central Council of Indian Medicine constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 was dissolved. On the same day, NCISM and their Autonomous Boards were constituted.
Similarly, on 05.07.2021, the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973 was repealed and the Central Council of Homoeopathy constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973 was dissolved. NCH and their Autonomous Boards constituted on the same day.
These Commissions are the statutory body constituted under NCISM & NCH Act, 2020.
These Acts were enacted to ensure a medical education system that improves access to quality and affordable medical education, ensures availability of adequate and high-quality medical professionals of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy in all parts of the country. These Acts helps to promote equitable and universal healthcare that encourages community health perspective and makes services of such medical professionals accessible and affordable to all the citizens; that promotes national health goals; that encourages such medical professionals to adopt latest medical research in their work and to contribute to research; that has an objective periodic and transparent assessment of medical institutions and facilitates maintenance of a medical register of Indian System of Medicine for India and enforces high ethical standards in all aspects of medical services; that is flexible to adapt to the changing needs and has an effective grievance redressal mechanism and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto
Ayush Admissions Central Counseling Committee (AACCC)
Ayush Admissions Central Counseling Committee (AACCC) of Ministry of Ayush, Govt. of India, New Delhi is conducting Online Counseling for allotment of All India Quota (AIQ) Seats of Under Graduate (BAMS/ BSMS/ BUMS/BHMS) and Post Graduate (MD/MS) courses under Govt./Govt. aided/ Central Universities/National Institutes/Deemed Universities of Ayurveda/ Siddha/ Unani/ Homoeopathy stream.
List of Permitted/Denial/LOP for New college institutes during the Academic year 2022-23:
- Permitted Existing Ayurved Colleges for the academic year 2022-23 as on 25.04.2023 *
- Denied Existing Ayurved Colleges for the academic year 2022-23 as on 25.04.2023 *
- List of Colleges Granted Letter of Permission (LOP) to establish new Ayurveda Colleges Under Section 29 from the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
- Permission status of existing Siddha colleges for the A.Y. 2022-23 U/s 28 of NCISM Act, 2020 as on 14.03.2023 *
- List of Granted LOP to Open New Siddha colleges From A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
- List of Colleges granted Letter of Permission (LOP) to increase seat (UG/PG)/start new PG in existing Siddha Collges from the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
- List of permitted existing UNANI colleges under section 28 of NCISM ACT, 2022 for the A.Y 2022-23 As on 14.03.2023 *
- List of denied UNANI college under section 28 of NCISM ACT, 2020 for the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
- List of colleges denied/issued letter of intent (LOI)/letter of permission (LOP) to increase seat (UG/PG)/ start new PG in existing UNANI colleges from the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
- Permitted existing Sowa Rigpa colleges for the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
- List of Denied existing Sowa Rigpa colleges for the A.Y. 2022-23 U/s 28 of NCISM Act, 2020 as on 14.03.2023 *
- List of LOP to Start new Sowa-Rigpa colleges From A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 *
* Source of Data - NCISM
Types of Counseling:
- Permitted Existing Ayurved Colleges for the academic year 2022-23 as on 25.04.2023 * (1.58 MB)
- Denied Existing Ayurved Colleges for the academic year 2022-23 as on 25.04.2023 * (885 KB)
- List of Colleges Granted Letter of Permission (LOP) to establish new Ayurveda Colleges Under Section 29 from the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (585 KB)
- Permission status of existing Siddha colleges for the A.Y. 2022-23 U/s 28 of NCISM Act, 2020 as on 14.03.2023 * (490 KB)
- List of Granted LOP to Open New Siddha colleges From A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (116 KB)
- List of Colleges granted Letter of Permission (LOP) to increase seat (UG/PG)/start new PG in existing Siddha Collges from the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (113 KB)
- List of permitted existing UNANI colleges under section 28 of NCISM ACT, 2022 for the A.Y 2022-23 As on 14.03.2023 * (565 KB)
- List of denied UNANI college under section 28 of NCISM ACT, 2020 for the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (429 KB)
- List of colleges denied/issued letter of intent (LOI)/letter of permission (LOP) to increase seat (UG/PG)/ start new PG in existing UNANI colleges from the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (535 KB)
- Permitted existing Sowa Rigpa colleges for the A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (133 KB)
- List of Denied existing Sowa Rigpa colleges for the A.Y. 2022-23 U/s 28 of NCISM Act, 2020 as on 14.03.2023 * (107 KB)
- List of LOP to Start new Sowa-Rigpa colleges From A.Y. 2022-23 as on 14.03.2023 * (269 KB)
* Source of Data - NCISM
Types of Counseling:
All the qualified NEET-UG /AIAPGET aspirants are eligible to participate in AACCC- UG and PG Counseling respectively. AACCC, M/o Ayush conducts counseling for admission to ASU & H -UG and PG courses as under:
- 15% All India Quota UG (BAMS/BSMS/BUMS/BHMS) seats under Govt./Govt. aided institutes of all States/ Union Territories.
- 100% UG (BAMS/BSMS/BUMS/BHMS) seats under National Institutes/ Central Universities.
- 100% UG (BAMS) seats under Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
- 50% BUMS seats of AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh.
- 50% BAMS & BHMS seats of NEIA&H, Shilong, Meghalaya.
- 50% BAMS seats of AIIA, Goa
- 50% BSMS seats of NIS, Chennai
- 100% UG (BAMS/BSMS/BUMS/BHMS) seats of all Deemed Universities.
- 15% All India Quota seats of PG courses under Govt./Govt. aided ASU & H institutes of all States/Union Territories.
- 100% PG Seats (All India Quota + Institutional Quota) under Banaras Hindu University as per eligibility conditions provided by the University.
- 100% seats of National Institutes/Central Universities (as per eligibility condition provided by the respective Institutes).
- 100% PG seats of all Deemed Universities.
Data of admitted UG & PG candidates under Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy stream during the A.Y. 2022-23
|Total Registered candidates||Total Admitted candidates|
|Total Registered candidates||Total Admitted candidates|
List of Permitted/Denial/LOP for New college institutes during the Academic year 2022-23
|Stream||No. of Permitted Colleges||No. of Denial Colleges||No. of LOP for New Colleges|
|Govt.||Govt. Aided||Central Universities/ National Institutes||Deemed Universities||Private||Grant-in-aid||Govt.||Govt. Aided||Central Universities/ National Institutes||Deemed Universities||Private||Govt.||Govt. Aided||Central Universities/ National Institutes||Deemed Universities||Private|
Research & Development
As per the Government’s Allocation of Business Rules, Ministry of Ayush has a mandate for coordination and promotion of research and development including assistance therefor in Ayush systems of Health Care. Ministry has 5 Autonomous Organizations working under it having a common objective of Evidence Based Research in their respective systems of medicine. These five Research Councils are:
- Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS)
- Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy (CCRYN)
- Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM)
- Central Council for Research in Siddha (CCRS)
- Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH)
Apart from these autonomous organizations, Ministry of Ayush also runs Ayurgyan Scheme (Central Sector Schemes) which has Research and Innovation as a component of scheme. This Research and Innovation component (erstwhile Extra Mural Research Scheme) of Ayurgyan scheme was introduced to tap the potential of medical institutes, scientific research & development institution, universities and organizations for the research needs of Ayush sector, with an aim to expand the ambit of research in Ayush systems. Research and Innovation component of Ayurgyan Scheme has been designed to encourage Research & Development in priority areas based on disease burden in alignment to National Health Programme. The priority areas of support are fundamental concepts, basic principles, theories of Ayush systems, standardization/validation of Ayush drugs and new drug development. Outcomes of the Research Scheme have successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of Ayush systems and were successful in developing novel technology and are expected to harness the potential of Ayush in the interest of public health delivery
National Ayush Research Consortium
Ministry of Ayush has also conceptualized National Ayush Research Consortium consisting of
Ministry of Ayush, DSIR, DBT and DST in consultation with NITI Aayog, to develop an
institutionalized system of high end, global standard quality research in Ayush systems. This
consortium will work with a multidisciplinary approach with scientists from basic science and
Ayush to own Ayush research, sit together, visualize healthcare challenges, and plan and
execute R&D initiatives to realize the goal of Health for all.
This intends to create a Research to Policy Collaboration Model for effective implementation in Policy initiatives and translation of R&D outcomes in public health. This initiative echoes with the recent address of Hon’ble PM on 75th Independence Day, where Hon’ble PM has given the slogan of ‘Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan, Jai Vigyan and Jai Anusandhan.’
Cabinet Secretary has given in-principle approval and a Consortium of Secretaries of Ministry of Ayush (as chair), Department of Science &Technology (DST), Department of Bio Technology (DBT), Department of Scientific &Industrial Research (DSIR), Department of Commerce (DoC), Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of India (MoEFCCI) and Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) has been created. Sub Committee is also made to chalk out funding mechanism and roadmap.
Summary of Research Activities carried out in year 2022 by five Research Councils
Medicinal Plant Research
|1||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||04 IMR projects have been completed. 43 IMR Projects and 2 Collaborative Projects are in progress. Additionally, 3 NMPB sanctioned projects are also going on. Total 36 Medico-EthnoBotanical Survey tours were conducted, and various short tours conducted to meet the requirement of raw drugs for various IMR Projects. A total of 815 Herbarium sheets & 2315 kg (approx.) of raw drug were collected|
|2||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||05 IMR projects have been completed. 02 IMR Projects have been completed, One EMR project in going on in year 2022. 07 surveys for ‘Collection of medicinal plants’ were initiated in 2022 where 03 have been completed. 02 projects for ‘Documentation & Digitization of Herbarium specimens’ are going on. 04 projects on ‘Cultivation of medicinal plants’ and 05 projects on ‘Maintenance of drug samples’ are going on.|
|3||Central Council for Research in Siddha||04 projects related to Medicinal Plant Research were completed in year 2022|
|4||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||Pharmacopoeia activities =HPI Revision, 21 (P+C) Collection of Medicinal Plants = 42 Cultivation of Medicinal plants = 104|
Drug Standardization Research and Pharmaceutical Research
|1||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||13 IMR and one collaborative project has been completed. 28 Intra Mural Research (IMR) projects and 2 collaborative projects are in progress. 2 IMR projects and 2 collaborative research studies are in progress for Pharmaceutical Research.|
|2||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||35 Intra Mural Research projects for Drug Standardization were initiated in 2022 where 20 have been completed. 124 monographs were revised, and report submitted to PCIM&H. Development of SOPs and pharmacopoeial standards of 25 Unani compound formulations were selected where work has been completed for 15 formulations. Revision work of National Formulary of Unani Medicine was completed. Drug sample analysis for 15 drugs were carried out.|
|3||Central Council for Research in Siddha||07 projects related to Drug Standardization Research were completed in year 2022|
|4||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||
|1||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||7 IMR Project has been completed. 33 IMR projects and 9 collaborative research studies are in progress.|
|2||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||
Acute and repeated dose (28-day) oral toxicity studies on six
Unani formulations (Majoon Piyaz, Triyaqe Afayee, Majoon
Ushba, Khamire Gaozabaan Saada, Qurse Mullayin and Cap.
Mubarek) were completed at NRIUMSD Hyderabad and
Presently, Acute, and sub-acute (28-days repeated dose) toxicity on Sharbat Ejaz, Sharbat Unnab, Sharbat toot Siyah, Itrifal Shahatra, Sufoof Dama Haldi Wala, and Qurs Asfar in progress at NRIUMSD Hyderabad and RRIUM Srinagar.
|3||Central Council for Research in Siddha||14 projects related to Pre-Clinical Studies were completed in year 2022.|
|4||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||22 preclinical studies were undertaken during the reported period, out of which 13 Studies were in collaboration with other institutes and 09 were In-house studies.|
|1||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||
|2||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||Validation studies on safety and efficacy of 20 new pharmacopoeial formulations were initiated whereas studies on 50 drugs were continued. Studies on three drugs including Jawarish-e- Bisbasa in Saman-e-Mufrit (Central Obesity), Khamira Banafsha in Sual–e-Yabis (Dry Cough) and Majoone-Piyaz in Surat-e-Inzaal (Premature ejaculation) were completed during the reporting period.|
|3||Central Council for Research in Siddha||14 projects related to Clinical Research were completed in year 2022.|
|4||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||During the reported period, 10 clinical research studies were continued from previous years, out of which 04 studies were concluded. 04 new research studies were initiated. The screening/enrolment/follow-up of the ongoing studies is continued during the reporting year.|
|1||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||06 IMR projects and 01 Collaborative project have been completed, 16 IMR and 2 Collaborative projects are in progress during the reporting period.|
|2||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||
Three new projects have been started in literary Research
namely, Urdu translation of Kitab al-Abniya an Haqa’iq alAdvia (Persian), Integration of Unani Medicine into
Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms
(SNOMEDCT) and Development of Module 2 of Traditional
Medicine chapter for inclusion in International Classification of
The Urdu translation of Al-Masail Fi’l Tib li’l Mutallimin (Arabic), Monograph on Mental Health and Mental diseases in Unani Medicine, Standard Unani Treatment Guidelines for Hummiyat (Fevers) and Urdu Translation of Al-Mughni fi Tadbir al-Amraz wa Ma’rifa al -Ilal wa al-Amraz (Arabic) have been completed during the reporting period.
|3||Central Council for Research in Siddha||02 projects related to Literary Research were completed in year 2022|
|4||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||
The concept to re-initiate Literary Research as one of the core
research areas was proposed in 73rd meeting of SAB held on
30th June 2022 at CCRH Headquarters. Wherein the board
recommended to constitute an expert committee to screen and
review the proposals received.
Total 39 proposals were received from 15 Units/Institutes under the project of Literary Research.
The meeting of Expert Committee to review the proposals received under the project was held on 09th and 10th November 2022 at CCRH Headquarters.
The recommendation of the expert committee will be placed in the subsequent SAB for further necessary directions.
Apart from these, Validation studies of the efficacy of Ilaj-bit-Tadbir (Regimenal therapies) viz; Ḥijāma bilā Sharṭ (Dry Cupping), Ḥijāma bi’l Sharṭ (Wet Cupping), Ḥijāma bi’l Nār (Fire Cupping), Ḥijāma Muzliqa (Moving Cupping), Ḥammām al-Bukhār (Steam Bath), Dalk Mu‘tadil (Moderate Massage), Nutūl (Fomentation), Inkibāb (Vaporization) and Venesection (Fasad) in different diseases like Niqris (Gout), Waj-al-Mafasil (Rheumatoid Arthritis), Tahajjur-i Mafasil (Osteoarthritis), Tahajjur-e-fuqrat-e-unuqiya (Cervical Spondylosis), Siman Mufriṭ (Obesity), Shaqīqa (Migraine), Amraz-i Mafasil (Musculoskeletal disorders), Baras (Vitiligo), Da al Sadaf (Psoriasis), Iltihāb Tajāwīf al-Anf (Sinusitis) were continued at different centers of the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM). During the reporting period a total number of 9882 patients were subjected to these therapies.
Research activities carried out by CCRYN in the field of Yoga Sciences
The Council is running a scheme of establishing collaborative Research Centers (CRC) to undertake Collaborative Research with following leading Medical as well as Yoga and Naturopathy Institutions: -
The Research projects undertaken with NIMHANS, Bangalore:
- Development and validation of Integrated Yoga module for patients suffering from Migraine.
- Development and feasibility of integrated therapy module for patients suffering from Multiple sclerosis.
- Knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and barriers for a referral to Yoga among the psychiatrists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons in India-A survey
- Psycho-neuro-endocrinological markers of stress and the response to a Yoga-based intervention in first degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (FDRS).
- Effect of Yoga on mirror neuron activity among patients with depression: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study” revised for originally proposed study with title “Role of Yoga in correcting GABA neurotransmitter deficit in moderate to severe depressive patients, a single blind and randomized controlled study.
The Research projects undertaken with Samskriti Foundation, Mysore, Karnataka are as under:
- Web-enabled and CD-Based Multimedia-Self-Teaching Program on Yoga Taravali of Shankaracharya-with topic-wise and other searches at various levels with topicwise and other searches at various levels.
- Critical edition of the 2nd 2 pada-s of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras-s- with necessary appendices etc.
- Brining out Monograph on ‘Yoga in Purana-s Vol II’ - in English along with the original Sanskrit texts.
- Web-enabled and CD-Based Multimedia-Self-teaching Program on Gheranda Samhita (One of the three most important texts of Hatha-Yoga) with topic-wise and other searches at various levels.
- Critical edition of Hatha-Pradipika of Svatmarama – by marking variant readings etc from 10 different palm leaf and paper manuscripts with necessary appendices etc.
- Brining out Monograph on ‘An overview of the theories and Practical aspects of Yoga- in the Upa- Purana-s’- in English along with the original Sanskrit texts.
Intra Mural Research (IMR)carried out by CCRYN
The following research proposals have been initiated and are on-going at present:
|S. No.||Title of the Research Project|
|1||To Evaluate the effects of Yoga on cognitive function, activities of daily living, selfreported depression and HRV in subjects with Vascular Dementia.|
|2||To evaluate the effects of Yoga on Pain and Quality of Life in patients with frequent and chronic tension headache.|
|3||To study the effect of Yoga therapy in reducing the pain, improving walking time and quality of life in the management of Osteoarthritis of Knee – A two arm randomized prospective control study.|
|4||To evaluate relaxation response on Blood pressure and HRV following different relaxation techniques in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.|
|5||Prevalence and perceptions of CAM in Indian patients visiting tertiary Multispecialty hospitals: a multi-institutional cross-sectional survey.|
Apart from these Research projects, 27 Research Projects in collaborative with AIIMS, PGIMER, Chandigarh and Kaivalyadham, Lonavala are also undergoing in CCRYN
Total No. of Research Publications in Indexed Journals of National/International repute
Research Publications in Indexed Journals of National/International repute in year 2022 (UGC-CARE, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Citation Index, Scopus)
|S. No.||Organization Name||Numbers of Articles published|
|1||National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur||330|
|2||Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar||29|
|3||All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi||28|
|4||North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda and Folk Medicine Research, Pasighat||05|
|5||North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy, Shillong||Nill|
|6||Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi||10|
|7||National Institute of Naturopathy, Pune||09|
|8||National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore||16|
|9||National Institute of Siddha, Chennai||48|
|10||National Institute of Sowa Rigpa, Leh, Laddakh||01|
|11||National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata||11|
|12||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||133|
|13||Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy||06|
|14||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||75|
|15||Central Council for Research in Siddha||108|
|16||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||62|
Books, Chapter in Books, Monographs, Manuals, Periodicals etc. published in year 2022
|S. No.||Organization Name||Numbers of Books/ Manuals published|
|1||National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur||22|
|2||Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar||05|
|3||All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi||32|
|4||North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda and Folk Medicine Research, Pasighat||05|
|5||North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy, Shillong||Nill|
|6||Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi||Nill|
|7||National Institute of Naturopathy, Pune||Nill|
|8||National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore||05|
|9||National Institute of Siddha, Chennai||02|
|10||National Institute of Sowa Rigpa, Leh, Laddakh||Nill|
|11||National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata||Nill|
|12||Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences||09|
|13||Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy||02|
|14||Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine||36|
|15||Central Council for Research in Siddha||53|
|16||Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy||04|
In order to promote medicinal plants sector, the Government of India has set up National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) on 24th November 2000. Currently the board is located in Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathy), Government of India. The primary mandate of NMPB is to develop an appropriate mechanism for coordination between various ministries/ departments/ organizations in India and implements support policies/programs for overall (conservation, cultivation, trade and export) growth of medicinal plants sector both at the Central /State and International level.
In our endeavor to provide market linkage to the farmers/ collectors involved in cultivation/ collection of medicinal plants, the detailed requirements from major companies (along with contact details of person from purchase dept.) is shared with all State Implementing Agencies & RCFCs supporting cultivation of Medicinal Plants.
|Raw material requirement from Different ASU&H Companies|
|S. No.||Name of the Company||No. of Species||Total Volume (in MT)|
|4||Dabur India Ltd||46||348.80|
IT activities of NMPB:
NMPB has developed an online portal cum android based application for trading of medicinal
plants named “e-CHARAK” to enable trading and information exchange between various
stakeholders involved in the medicinal plants sector.
Currently, e-Charak mobile application has 38,072 downloads; 8,687 registered users; 1,87,47,970 visitors; 6,221 Posted items; 37,77,230 Buyer Sellers interactions along with, 7,021 resolved queries supported via online chat system.
GLOBAL AYUSH INNOVATION AND INVESTMENT SUMMIT
NMPB organized ‘Buyer-Seller Meet among the Farmer Bodies, Industries and State/UT Government on challenges faced and way forward which includes discussion on Medicinal Plants Cultivation and Supply Chain Management’.
- The event was attended by 500 (approx.) delegates.
- During the panel discussion 10 experts from different Ministries/various departments/industry led the discussion for the promotion of Medicinal Plants Sector.
- 53 MoUs were signed between industry and Farmer Bodies.
- Approximately 7500 farmers were involved in signing the MoUs.
- The approximate value of the MoUs signed is 234 Cr
Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav Campaign by NMPB, Ministry of Ayush
National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Ministry of Ayush has also organized Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav (AKAM) Campaign to promote the medicinal plant sector in country. Under the AKAM, NMPB, Ministry of Ayush supported two activities:
- “Ayush Aapke Dwaar” to create awareness on medicinal plants and
- Distribution of Medicinal plants saplings to farmers for promotion of Cultivation during the period of one year from 30th August, 2021 onwards.
Distribution of medicinal plants saplings along with Ayush Aapke Dwar: Till date, under Ayush AapkeDwar campaign 8345393saplings of Ashwagandha, Bael, Kalmegh, Lemon grass, Shatavari, Amla, Tulsi, Giloe, Ghritkumari etc. have been distributed among farmers, students, households and general public in 30 states including UTs.
Cultivation of Medicinal Plants
The inaugural / launch programmes were organized on 3rd September, 2021 in 17 States/ Union territories through Regional Cum Facilitation Centre (RCFCs), State Medicinal Plants Board (SMPBs) and other scheme implementing agencies to distribute medicinal plants saplings to cover maximum number of farmers in the District/State/Region.
Yearlong distribution of Medicinal Plants
During the AKAM Campaign, the NMPB, Ministry of Ayush through RCFCs/SMPBs and
other Implementing Agencies distributed more than 91 Lakhs saplings of various medicinal
plants to 14792 farmers across the country.
The medicinal plants distributed during the campaign are Kutki, Kuth, Jatamansi, Giloy, Tulsi, Kalmegh, Ashwagandha, Aloe vera, Brahmi, Shatavari, Stevia, Tejpatta, Ashoka, Guggulu, Sarpagandha, Amla etc. Under this campaign species specific to State and Region were given priority for distribution among farmers to promote their cultivation.
National campaign on Ashwagandha- “A Health Promoter”
The National Medicinal Plants Board Ministry of Ayush launched National campaign
on Ashwagandha- “A Health Promoter” with an objective to create awareness about the
Health Benefits of Ashwagandha among public & promote usage of this potential
medicinal plant throughout the country.
The National Campaign launched during the occasion of 7th Ayurveda Day Celebration on 23rd October,2022 in presence of Hon'ble Group of Ministers & Secretaries of various Ministries.
R&D activities of Central Sector Scheme of NMPB from January 2022 to December 2022
- In order to promote R&D activities, National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Ministry of AYUSH, under its Central Sector Scheme on ‘Conservation, Development and Sustainable Management of Medicinal Plants’ provides project based financial support to carry out research activities on various aspects of medicinal plants to government as well as private universities/research institutions/organizations across the country only.
- Details of research projects supported on various aspects of medicinal plants under
Central Sector Scheme for conservation, development and sustainable management of
medicinal plants theme-wise since inception to till date i.e. during 2001-2002 to 2022-23
to different organizations throughout country are as below:
S. No. Research Areas No. of Projects 1 Bioactivity guided fractionation studies and pre-clinical studies 48 2 Development of agro techniques, standardization of nursery techniques and cultivation practices 76 3 Documentation and development of geo tag digital library 21 4 Finding out substitute and authentication of raw drugs 22 5 Genotype Identification, genetic improvement, genome study and germplasm collection & conservation 23 6 Intercropping and sustainable production technology 31 7 In-vitro propagation studies, micro-propagation chemical & molecular profiling and phyto-chemicals evaluation 90 8 Post-harvest Management, assessment of heavy metals and integrated pest management 53 9 Survey, identification, characterization and conservation of medicinal plants 27 10 Varietal development and prospect of marketing 11 TOTAL 402
- Agro-Techniques of 104 selected medicinal plants were published in three volumes.
- Apart from this 02 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has been signed with R&D
- National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Ministry of AYUSH and ICARNational Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Department of Agricultural Research and Education for germplasm maintenance and conservation and Department of Biotechnology
- NMPB and Ministry of Science & Technology made Joint Call for R&D Proposals on Biotech interventions in medicinal plants to strengthen medicinal plant sector.
- Under these sponsored /financially supported research projects, NMPB so far
identified 05 unique projects which are novel in nature and patentable. The filings of
IPR are under process.
- Bio-production of secondary metabolites from Aegle marmelos (R&D/TN04/2006- 07).
- In vitro production of secondary metabolites from tree species of Dasamoola through hairy root cultures (R&D/TN-0112013-14-NMPB).
- Development of anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agents from Dioscoria floribunda (R&D/UP-04/2015-16).
- Cyto-morphological Phytochemical, Molecular Characterization and Formulation of New Herbal Product from selected species of Genus Berreris (L.) from Himachal Pradesh (R&D/HP-02/2019-20).
- Post-harvest management practices for medicinal tuber crops (MP-01/2017-18).
Quality & Standard
As prescribed in Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 made there under, enforcement of the legal provisions pertaining to Quality Control and issuance of drug license of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathic drugs, is vested with the State Drug Controllers/ State Licensing Authorities appointed by the concerned State/ Union Territory Government. Rule 158-B in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 provides the regulatory guidelines for issue of license to manufacture Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani medicines and Rule 85 (A to I) in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 provides the regulatory guidelines for issue of license to manufacture Homoeopathic medicines. It is mandatory for the manufacturers to adhere to the prescribed requirements for licensing of manufacturing units & medicines including proof of safety & effectiveness, compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as per Schedule T & Schedule M-I of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 and quality standards of drugs given in the respective pharmacopoeia.
Vision and objectives of Drug Policy Section, Ministry of Ayush
Ministry of Ayush has a Drug Policy Section (DPS) to undertake regulatory and quality control functions for Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Homoeopathy (ASU&H) drugs and implement drugs-related initiatives. The Drug Policy Section administers the provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules there under and Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954 in respect of ASU&H drugs and associated matters. In this regard, the Section acts as a central drug control framework of ASU&H and coordinates with the State Licensing Authorities/Drug Controllers and drug manufacturers associations to achieve uniform administration of the legal provisions and for providing regulatory guidance, clarification, and direction.
Besides, following tasks are handled in the Drugs Policy Section -
- Examination of grant-in-aid proposals and Utilization Certificates of the States/UTs/private firms received under Central Sector Scheme i.e., Ayush Oushadhi Gunvatta Evam Uttpadan Samvardhan Yojana (AOGUSY), implemented by Ministry of Ayush.
- Secretarial work of two statutory bodies- Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani Drugs Technical Advisory Board (ASUDTAB) and Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani Drugs Consultative Committee (ASUDCC) including coordination for holding their meetings and to take follow up actions.
- Interface with the Central Drug Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), National Medicinal Plants Board, Pharmacopoeia Commission of Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy, Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Quality Council of India, Pharmexcil, Bureau of Indian Standards and other Government Departments and regulatory agencies for matters of ASU&H drugs
- Technical examination of the applications under WHO-GMP/ CoPP certification scheme for ASU drugs, licensing of Drug Testing Laboratories and conduct of joint inspection of manufacturing units and laboratories.
- Matters of health insurance coverage to Ayush treatments and new systems/therapies of healthcare.
- Pharmacovigilance and surveillance of advertisements of ASU&H drugs.
Major Accomplishments and Achievements
Advisory has been issued on compliance to pharmacopoeial standards of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) to all ASU Manufacturers/ Drugs Associations/ Industry stakeholders to ensure strict compliance for manufacturing its single or compound formulations on 24th Feb 2022.
- Ministry of Ayush has published a technical dossier on Guduchi, prepared by committee under the Chairmanship of Prof. M.L.B. Bhatt, Chairman, Ex-Vice Chancellor, K.G. Medical University, Lucknow
- A meeting of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani Drug Technical Advisory Board (ASUDTAB) was conducted on 27.6.2022 under the chairmanship of Director General of Health Services (DGHS).
- The Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) has issued an advisory to ecommerce platforms that the sale or facilitating the sale of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani drugs containing ingredients listed in Schedule E (1) of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 shall be done only after a valid prescription of a registered Ayurveda, Siddha or Unani practitioner respectively is uploaded by the user on the platform.
- Ministry of Ayush vide gazette notification S.O. 4562(E) dated 27.09.2022 has appointed its 09 officers for the additional charge of 09 posts i.e., 04 posts of Drug Inspectors (01 in each stream- Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy); 04 posts of Assistant Drug Controller (01 each for Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy) and 01 post of Deputy Drug Controller (ASU&H) in addition to their normal duties in the Ministry of Ayush.
- 32 Ayurvedic Drug Manufacturing Units have been granted WHO–GMP (CoPP) by Drug Controller General (India) till date.
- 78 Drug testing laboratories have been approved under Rule 160-A to J of the Drugs & Cosmetics Rules, 1945 for the testing of Ayurveda, Siddha & Unani drugs.
- The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) has constituted a committee for Enabling Intellectual Property Rights (IPRS) protection to Traditional Systems of Indian Medicine (TSIM) under the chairmanship of Secretary, DPIIT with Secretary, Ministry of Ayush as Member, Convenor. Two meetings of the said Committee were held during the year 2022. The terms of references of the said committee are as follows:
- Examination of Challenges faced by Ayush Drugs in protection of IPRs.
- Lacunae in existing provisions for protection of IPRs in traditional medicine.
- Enable proper documentation of India Traditional Knowledge to prevent acquisition of patents etc. by manufactures in other countries.
- Promotion of collaborative research and other measures to develop ‘novel’ Ayush Capacity building about IPRs amongst Ayush practitioners, researchers, and students. Any other relevant issue related to promotion of Ayush drugs.
- Suggest interventions such as modification in guidelines and recommendations of appropriate amendments to the existing IPR related legislation, if required.
- A meeting with ASU drug manufacturers/ Industries has been organized to assess Industrial preparedness for COVID related medicine: Ayush-64, Kabasura Kudineer, Ayuraksha kit, Bal Raksha kit, Ayurcare Kit was held under the Chairmanship of Adviser Ayurveda, Ministry of Ayush on 26.12.2022.
- Two Posts of Program Manager (Technical) and (Accounts) and one post of DEO have been recruited under Program Management Unit (PMU) of Ayush Oushadhi Gunvatta evum Uttapadan Samvardhan Yojana (AOGUSY) scheme in the month of November 2022.
- Ministry of Health & family Welfare (MoHFW) had invited suggestions/ comments/ objections from the public/ stakeholders about the draft of New Drugs, Medical Devices and Cosmetics Bill, 2022 on 08.07.2022. In this regard, a committee has been constituted to examine the said draft and representation of various stakeholders received regarding the said draft bill. Ministry of Ayush has submitted comments of the stakeholders along with the recommendations of committee to MoHFW.
- Under the 3rd component of AOGUSY Scheme, i.e., “Strengthening of central and state regulatory frameworks including technical human resource & capacity building programs for Ayush drugs”, Ministry of Ayush has initiated comprehensive program for development of human resources for the ASU&H industry and regulatory personnel in the states. A training has been conducted on 6th& 7th January 2022 for Ayush drug regulators, industry personnel and other stake holders at National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Bangalore, Karnataka for the South Zone (Tamil Nadu; Andhra Pradesh; Telangana; Kerala; Karnataka; Puduchery; & Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar)
Pharmacovigilance Program for Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Homoeopathy (ASU&H)
Drugs has been established under the AOGUSY Scheme. The program is working through a
three-tier network of a National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPvCC), Five Intermediary
Pharmacovigilance Centers (IPvCs) and 99 Peripheral Pharmacovigilance Centers (PPvCs)
established across the country.
The vision of the program is to improve patient safety in Indian population by monitoring the drug safety in ASU & H drugs and thereby reducing the risk associated with use of these drugs. Further, the program focusses upon generating awareness among various stakeholders, inculcating reporting culture of suspected adverse effects and surveillance of misleading advertisements appearing in the print and electronic media.
To generate awareness regarding the Ayush therapeutic approaches and educate about the systematic use of Ayush drugs, and to inculcate the reporting of any suspected adverse drug reaction in healthcare professionals; awareness events are being regularly organized across the country. In the present year, from January to November 2022, 243 awareness programs have been conducted, where 20521 stakeholders have been sensitized.
Reporting Objectionable advertisements to the respective State Licensing Authorities are an objective of the program. During the reporting period (January to November 2022), a total 6632 misleading advertisements have been noticed and reported to the SLAs for possibility of action against the defaulters.
Since 2018, the center has started receiving suspected reactions. These are the individual case safety reports and can be signals for future reference. These are being recorded and submitted to Drug Policy Section, Ministry of Ayush for information. During the present year we have reported 285 such suspected reactions of AYUSH drugs. These reports are mild in nature. None of them were found to be serious and none required hospitalization. No fatality was noticed, and all the reports were self-limiting and non-serious in nature.
Insurance Coverage in Ayush Sector
Guidelines have been issued for reimbursement / settlement of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Yoga and Naturopathy treatment expenditure claims under insurance coverage with the benchmarks like Eligible hospitals for the treatment, Tentative list of disease conditions needing hospitalization of the patients, indicative therapies and likely duration of hospitalization, Benchmark costing of therapies / interventions, Determination of treatment expenditure have been provided. The representations or issues raised by various stakeholders are forwarded to Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDAI) for necessary action.
Ministry of Ayush had launched e-AUSHADHI portal for online licensing of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Homoeopathy drugs. Till date 51 licensing authorities, 241 Drug inspectors and 2094 manufacturers have successfully registered themselves on the eAUSHADHI portal, an online system for License applications.
|Ayush drugs and policies related documents|
|Advisory on Aswagandha (235 KB)|
|Appointment of Government Analyst (1.07 MB)|
|The Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules (7.18 MB)|
|Directions to all State Licensing Authorities of Ayurveda Siddha and Unani regarding Stability Study data of ASU Drugs (235 KB)|
|Advisory on Expert Committee for licensing/approval of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani drugs -reg. (105 KB)|
Partnership & Collaboration
The proactive efforts made by India in positioning the Ayurveda and Yoga as the soft power of
India and at the same time generating evidence about the health benefits as well as safety of
these systems has given significant boost to demand of Ayurveda, Yoga and other Indian
traditional systems of medicine across the world.
The Ministry developed a Central Sector Scheme for promotion of International Cooperation (IC Scheme) with the mandate to promote and strengthen awareness about Ayush Systems of Medicine; to facilitate international promotion, development and recognition of Ayush Systems in foreign countries; to foster interaction of stakeholders and market development of Ayush at international level; to support international exchange of experts and information; to give boost to Ayush products in International market and to establish Ayush Academic Chairs in foreign countries.
Vision and Objectives of Scheme:
The scheme is meant for achieving the following objectives:
- To promote and strengthen awareness and interest about Ayush Systems of Medicine at the international level.
- To facilitate international promotion, development and recognition of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-Rigpa and Homoeopathy
- To foster interaction of stakeholders and market development of Ayush at international level.
- To support international exchange of experts and information for promotion and propagation of Ayush systems.
- To give boost to Ayush products/ services / education/ research/ training globally.
- To promote academics and research through establishment of Ayush Academic Chairs in foreign countries
Brief about the activities for promotion of Ayush globally:
Ministry of Ayush under its IC scheme undertakes various activities for the promotion of Ayush globally. Under this scheme, the Ministry of Ayush provides support to Indian Ayush Manufacturers/ Ayush Service providers to give boost to the export of Ayush products & services; facilitates the International promotion, development and recognition of Ayush system of medicine; foster interaction of stakeholders and market development of Ayush at international level; promote academics and research through the establishment of Ayush Academic Chairs in foreign countries and holding training workshop/symposiums for promoting and strengthening awareness and interest about Ayush Systems of Medicine at international level.
As of now, the Ministry of Ayush has collaborated with more than 50 countries for the promotion of Ayurveda, Yoga and all other Ayush systems by virtue of signing of country-tocountry MoU, research collaborations, MoU for establishing academic chairs of Ayush in foreign universities, setting up of Ayurveda/Ayush hospitals/academic institute, setting up of herbal garden, exchange of experts, deputation of Ayush experts, organizing workshops, conferences etc. Moreover, every year 104 seats are allocated to foreign countries coming from different parts of the world to learn Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani etc. respective Ayush systems. The students are provided scholarships, tuition fees, to and fro air fare etc. to study Ayush systems in India. Total 66 seats have been confirmed under the scheme for academic year 2022-23. At present 260 students from following 32 countries are taking Ayush education in different institutes under Ayush Fellowship Scheme:
|S. No.||Countries||S. No.||Countries|
Memorandum of Understanding with different Countries:
As of now, Ministry of Ayush has signed 24 Country to Country MoUs for Cooperation in field of Traditional Medicine and Homoeopathy with Nepal, Bangladesh, Hungary, Trinidad & Tobago, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Myanmar, WHO- Geneva, Germany (Joint declaration), Iran, Sao Tome & Príncipe, Equatorial Guinea, Cuba, Colombia, Japan (MoC), Bolivia, Gambia, Republic of Guinea, China, St Vincent and The Grenadines, Suriname, Brazil and Zimbabwe. Under these MoUs, the Ministry is conducting various activities for promotion of Ayush. 43 MoUs for undertaking Collaborative Research / Academic collaboration signed with foreign institutes/universities.
Establishment of Ayush Academic Chairs at foreign universities/institutes
15 MoUs for setting up Ayush Academic Chairs have been signed with foreign institutes in Australia, Mauritius, Latvia, Hungary, Slovenia, Armenia, Russia, Malaysia, South Africa, Bangladesh, Thailand etc.
Ayush Information Cell –
Ayush Information Cell have been set up in 39 countries to disseminate authentic information about ASU&H systems of Medicine. Ayurveda day, IDY etc. are also being celebrated every year through Ayush Information Cells.
Partnership & Collaboration
|S. No.||MoU b/w MoA &…||Purpose|
|1||Invest India||Invest India, with the support of Ministry of Ayush, will set up a Strategic Policy and Facilitation Bureau (SPFB) to facilitate and attract investment in India's rapidly growing Indian System of medicine.|
|2||ICMR||To Explore the areas of collaboration, convergence and synergy for integrative health research & strengthening research capacity between M/o Ayush and ICMR.|
|3||DGAFMS||To extend the services of Ayurveda in the health establishments in MoD / DGAFMS as OPD services|
|4||DGDE||To integrate Ayurveda /AYUSH under the health establishments in Cantonment Board Hospitals/Dispensaries under DGDE as an OPD service|
|5||ECHS||To integrate Ayurveda in ECHS Polyclinics as an OPD service .|
|6||DBT||To evidence based biotechnological interventions in Ayush sector. & avoid overlapping of and duplication of scientific research activities in both the organizations.|
|7||DST||To evidence-based scientific intervention in the Ayush sector & Application of modern science towards understanding the Ayush-related basic concepts and principles.|
|8||Tripartite||For development of cooperative efforts amongst M/o Ayush, CSIR and ICAR, for the documentation, promotion and facilitation of research and development. validation, and deployment of agri technologies related to medicinal plants and their value-added products of benefit to humans, plants and animals.|
|9||MoTA||For tribal development while preserving the tribal cultural heritage through evidence based planning, capacity building and other enabling measures.|
|10||MoRD||For the larger goal of community development and poverty alleviation in rural areas.|
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